3 March 2019

$250m is my ‘’guesstimate’’ for the total cost of Nana’s cathedral. $100m for the building itself, the rest for the land, cost of rebuilding of demolished building, etc.

In Ghana, it may end up being as high as $500m.

According to Nana, he made a VOW to God that if he wins the 2016 elections, he would build a CATHEDRAL to the GLORY of GOD. Gospeloid Practitioner Duncan-Williams confirmed this vow story.

Three words stand out; vow, cathedral and glory (of God).

I know you’re wondering why his personal vow has become a burden to the state? Don’t stress. The vow could never have been made to the Christian God. Follow me.


“If a man makes a vow to the LORD or swears an oath to bind himself by some agreement, he shall not break his word; he shall do according to all that proceeds out of his mouth.’’

Numbers 30:2

33 “Again you have heard that it was said to those of [c]old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform your oaths to the Lord.’ 34 But I say to you, do not swear at all: … But let [d]your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No,’ ‘No.’ For whatever is more than these is from the evil one.

Jesus was obviously referring to Mosaic law as in Numbers 30:2. The Master didn’t only ban vowing, he categorically said that the one who vows is an agent of Satan.

To leave no one in doubt, the Apostle of Love, James had this to say in James 5:12

BUT ABOVE ALL, my brethren, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath. But let your “Yes” be “Yes,” and your “No,” “No,” lest you fall into [i]condemnation.

The verdict is clear; the Christian God says, the one who vows is satanic and condemnable.


Acts 17

24 God, who made the world and everything in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands. 25 Nor is He worshiped with men’s hands, as though He needed anything, since He gives to all life, breath, and all things.

29 Therefore, since we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold or silver or stone, something shaped by art and man’s devising. 30 Truly, these times of ignorance God overlooked, but now commands all men everywhere to repent.

In Ghana, some think ignorance is an opinion. God says IGNORANCE is a sin deserving repentance. If Nana thinks God is like a vain man needing a ”bribe” from him then, he needs repentance.

The interesting thing is that the only thing Jesus said he would destroy was the TEMPLE, THE JEWISH CATHEDRAL. By his death and resurrection, he ended the TEMPLE ERA. You can’t glorify Jesus’ God with a temple. Only the ignorant would think so.


14 “You are the light of the world… 16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father in heaven.

This is the rule from the Lord himself. So, what would Jesus have done with $250m to give glory to the Father? Stay tuned.



Two loyal supporters of our cause have advised me that for political reasons I should stay out of the Ga Mantse mess. I told them that for political reasons I will stay put in the Ga Mantse mess.

If I can’t say the truth I know about this small Ga mess, how can I talk about the big mess called Ghana? Charity begins at home.

If anyone decides that I have said something they disagree with or do not like concerning this Ga Mantse saga, and therefore they refuse to vote for me, then they are not worthy.

As for me, I will speak the truth no matter what.

Luke 1:1-4 says “Inasmuch as many have taken in hand to set in order a narrative of those things which [a]have been fulfilled among us, 2 just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us, 3 it seemed good to me also, having [b]had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write to you an orderly account, most excellent Theophilus, 4 that you may know the certainty of those things in which you were instructed.”

Here, Luke is saying although he did not meet the physical Jesus, he had perfect understanding from those who witnessed Jesus, and therefore he felt motivated to write an orderly account of what Jesus did.

I’m going to give an orderly account of the Ga state based on what others have done or told me – metadata on Ga.
There is no question about the fact that this is a very complex matter filled with controversies from even the very best. I have read notes of Odotei, Reindorf, Amartey, Ammah etc.

My great grandmother and grandmothers also told me their bit. I’ve carefully gone through all the complex information to come out with this account. Granted, others may have other accounts but I hope I do justice to the matter.

ORIGIN – we do not know exactly where Gamei came from, but it is established that they came to present day Ghana as part of a larger group called Ga-Dangme.

There are so many competing hypotheses about the origin of Ga that I will leave that for another day.

ARRIVAL – we do not know the exact time or even period. Ozzane, based on excavations suggested the Ga-Dangmes were here as early as 1200AD.

Their 1st habitation was east and north east of the Accra plains – where the Dangmes are located at the present time, where they lived as independent units.

DISPERSION – the Ga segment of the larger Ga-Dangme group moved west into the Accra plains and to the coastal areas.

Influence of Guan and Akan on Ga resulted in structural and linguistic differences between the Gas and their Dangme siblings.

There are 6 major Ga towns – Ga Mashi, Osu, La, Teshi, Nungua and Tema. These groups dispersed or broke away and migrated away from the larger Ga-Dangme group at different times.

SETTLEMENT – there were other people in the Accra plains and the coast before the arrival of the Gas. These were Guan groups – Kpeshi, Kyerepon, Le and Obutu. Ga settled among these groups and successfully assimilated all except Obutu.

AYAWASO – political and military centralization didn’t start among Gas until towards end of the 15th century. Amartey suggests Ayawaso was in existence by 1482.

Ayawaso, started by Ayi Kushi of Tungma division of Ga Mashi eventually gained control over other Ga territories. The other division of Ga Mashi was Asere. At its peak, Ayawaso was made up of Ga Mashi, La, Nungua, Tema and Obutu.

Ayawaso was the inland capital of the Ga kingdom overseeing settlements all over the Accra plains and along the coast. Members of Ga Mashi, Nungua and Tema were the first to inhabit the coast.

It is not clear which of them moved to the coast first, but we can deduce. Will revert to this later.

Ga Mashi met 2 indigenous groups – Nai worshippers and Oyeni worshippers. The Nai worshippers were assimilated into Tungma. Down the line, a Nai wulomo married a Tungma Princess Ode. Their descendants formed the Amugi We. The Oyeni worshippers are the Sempe people.

This is where Nai derives his authority from – the spiritual boss on the coast before all Gas arrived. The indigenous Nai people were theocratic, Gas were not theocratic prior to that but they did adopt Nai, the sea god as their primary deity and its Wulomo as their Chief Priest.

Nungua is a contraction of Ningo Wayo or Little Ningo. The name tells the whole story.

A group of people led by one Konor Bɔkete Lawɛ left Ningo to settle on the coast. For your information, Konor is the Dangme title for a chief. Lawe is Dangme equivalent of Oko or Akwete. Bɔkete Lawɛ was a twin from Ningo.

Nungua shared border with Ga Mashi on its west, being separated by the Kpeshi lagoon and Tema on its east and separated by the Sakumo lagoon.

Ningo itself was founded by Djangma and Oklu Doso before other groups like Kabiawe and Bɔbɔ joined them. The Bɔbɔ group was the one that migrated en bloc with Bɔkete Lawɛ to form Amanfa division of Nungua. The other division is Sanshi.

Did Bɔkete Lawɛ meet other people on the coast? I believe he met some Kpeshis and subdued them. That’s why the lagoon separating them, and Ga Mashi is called Kpeshi. Who are the descendants of the Kpeshis? That will be for another day.

Questions to think about:

1. When did Bɔkete Lawɛ migrate to Nungua?

2. Did he move to Nungua before Ga Mashi and Tema moved to the coast?

3. How and when did Teshi, La and Osu come between Nungua and Ga Mashi?

While these questions remain outstanding, my take home message for you is this:

Bɔkete Lawɛ didn’t lead Ga-Dangme from anywhere to the coast. He was a twin born in Ningo in the 16th century, over 300 years after Ga-Dangmes arrived in present-day Ghana from wherever.

Konor Gbɔbu Wulomo, a descendant of Bɔkete Lawɛ is not and cannot be the spiritual head of Ga, let alone Ga-Dangme. Let me add that we have never had a consolidated Ga-Dangme kingdom before.

In fact, neither has there ever been a unitary Dangme kingdom before. Rather, as we see even till today, the Dangmes groups have lived as independent towns with no central authority.

The only Ga Kingdom was Ayawaso and was led by Tungma division of Ga Mashi.

Stay tuned for Part 2.

Tswa omanye aba.

THE GA OVERLORD QUESTION – Spiritual and Secular (Political and Judicial) – The Gospel of the Ga State Part 3

THE GA OVERLORD QUESTION – Spiritual and Secular (Political and Judicial) – The Gospel of the Ga State Part 3

12 March 2019


Irene Odotei in the Introduction to ‘’The history of Ga people’’ wrote: ‘’It is inaccurate, therefore, to portray the Ga-Adanme as an example of the wholesale migration of a people from a foreign country to their present territory.

The Ga of today are a complex mixture of people and cultures which have gradually fused into a society with distinct characteristics…These include Guan and Akan.

The assimilation of these foreign elements account for the linguistic and institutional differences between the Adanme and Ga today. It was also the Accra plains that the western group developed the name, Ga, to distinguish themselves from the Adanme.’’

‘’The settlement of the Ga in the Accra plains led to changes in their socio-political organization. According to tradition, prior to the arrival of the Ga, there were people who had already established scattered settlements on the Accra plains.

The Ga founded their own settlements amongst these pre-existing communities, of which the best remembered in traditional accounts are the worshipers of Nai, whose WULOMO (priest) is acknowledged today as the MOST SENIOR of all the WULOMEI of the Ga towns.’’

Two groups of people in the west – Guans, the indigenous people and Gas the new arrivals. The Guans, notably the Nai worshippers were led by priests whereas it would appear the Gas were secular.

The Gas managed this dichotomy well through the gradual fusion of these two cultures. The landlord, Nai, became the SPIRITUAL HEAD of the union and the assimilating power, Ga, became the POLITICAL HEAD. Thus, began ABLEKUMA, the pragmatic and forward-looking Ga assimilation of non-Gas into its society.

Prof Odotei continues about how the institutional changes within the new ‘’ablekumized’’ Ga proceeded. ‘’In reality, each Ga group evolved its internal system of secular authority at different times.

Although in the seventeenth century, the Ga acknowledged the King of Accra as their sovereign, they maintained the priestly leadership within the individual groups. Furthermore, the KING of ACCRA was in fact from GA MASHI, and Ga Mashi had already instituted secular power by the end of the sixteenth century.’’

I can write a whole book on the above quote, but for now, let proceed from the point where Ga Mantse became the sovereign or POLITICAL OVERLORD of all Ga.

It’s clear also that, each Ga group developed its own political system within the Ga Commonwealth or Jaku. This is one of the reasons I see the unitary state of Ghana as very alien.

Another Guan aboriginal group were Oyeni worshippers – today they are the Sempe in Ga Mashi and Moi We in Nungua, named after their 1st leader Nuumo Moi.

The Nai group assimilated into Tungma (the political head). The 1st son of the Nai Wulomo and Princess Ode of Tungma was Amugi (the embodiment of both the spiritual and secular sovereignty of Ga).

This started the Amugi We of Abola. For this reason, every Ga Mantse swears his oath of office at Amugi Naa – the Westminster of Ga Jaku.

Asere, the other clan of original Ga Mashi was unsuccessful in assimilating Sempe.


King Okaikoi made a major constitutional change in Ga, by forming the Akwashon or the Supreme Military and Judicial Council of Ga.

The panel of Judges were the 7 regional commanders of Ga Mashi. The head of the Akwashon – the Akwashontse who always hailed from Asere, was both the CDS and Chief Justice of Ga. The Supreme Court was housed MOJAWE in Ga Mashi.

Nii Amugi wrote a book entitled MOJAWE before he became Ga Mantse. Regrettably, today we have people with nothing to their names fighting ad infinitum to become Ga Mantse.

What have they done to advance the culture of Ga? Can they even write Ga? Did we go or did we come? We need a fresh start.

Every community leader could hold court, but Mojawe linked the military so closely to justice that a de facto judicial system evolved. District commanders – Asafoiatsemei became magistrates, regional commanders – Shipii became high court judges. Appeal cases from Shipii went to the Mankralo (the Prime Minister). The very serious cases went to Mojawe were all the 7 shipii sat.

King Okaikoi (1635-1660) created the most independent military/police and judiciary ever known to mankind. He never appointed any of the shipii.

Today, we have the most useless constitution, where the President appoints every service commander, IGP and SC judges. The Police are now crying for Okaikoi.

How has the influence of the 4 original groups (Tungma, Asere, Nai & Sempe) played out in Ga?
Tungma/Abola gives Ga Mantse – Political Overload & President of Ga.

Nai We gives Nai Wulomo – Spiritual Overload of Ga.

Asere gives the Akwaashontse – Military and Judicial Overload of Ga.

Sempe gives the Mankralo – Deputy Political Overlord & Prime Minister of Ga.

In all the literature concerned with the evolution of Ga Jaku, there’s no mention of Borketey Larweh.
There’s a fair bit I haven’t included here: Ayawaso and further evolution of secular power on the coast.

In spite of Okaikoi gifting Asere with leadership of the military and the judiciary arms of Ga governance, it was envious Asere generals who betrayed the great warrior King to the Akwamu.

When Afadi Okaikoi realised the treachery of Asere, he cursed Ga, and the mighty warrior who could kill with one ‘’atswere’’ blow, fell on his sword.

Lamentably, that same spirit of envy that ‘’killed’’ Okaikoi and led to the ‘’colonization’’ of Ga by Akwamu is still with Ga today. If I have three political ”enemies”, I wager two of them will be Ga.

Envy and resentment are in our DNA and we are our own worst enemy.

Is there any hope for Ga?

The Gospel of the Ga State Part 4 – Ayawaso, Nationhood and Ga Akulashiŋ

The Gospel of the Ga State Part 4 – Ayawaso, Nationhood and Ga Akulashiŋ

13 March 2019

Ayawaso, a city on the hill and by virtue of that geographical position, a city that cannot be hidden, was the seat of government of the Ga Commonwealth, and not a country by itself aas many have thought.

The territory of the commonwealth stretched from Awutu/Obutu in the west to Tema in the east and its variable influence stretched as far as Ada in the far east.

Though Kpone to Ada were not under political Ayawaso, there’s no doubt these Dangme towns were spiritually and militarily in tandem with Ga. According to AA Amartey, judicially, Mojawe served as the Supreme Court up to Ada. Culturally, Kpone, Gbugbla and Ningo celebrated Homowo and not Asafotu.


How was this commonwealth built? Wise leadership and nothing else, is critical for nation building.
Armaah Amartey opined in Omanye Aba that by 1483, King Ayi Kushi had moved (ekpla) Ga Mashi to Ayawaso.

Stride and Ifeka in Peoples & Empires of West Africa agreed with the late 15th century beginning of political and military centralization of Ga, but Ammah put these changes to the beginning of the 16th century, around 1510.

Ayite, the son of Ayi Kushi and the 2nd Monarch started the expansion of Ayawaso, a process completed by Nikoi Olai, the 3rd King by 1585. Mampɔŋ Okai the 4th King (1585 – 1610) was in effect the 1st Monarch to reign over the full commonwealth.

He was like Solomon ruling over a consolidated and secure Israel.
Most agree that Ga-Dangme migrated to Ghana as early as the 13th century, but Amartey writing on Ayawaso said ‘’Niimɛi ni etra Ga Sɛi lɛ nɔ kɛjɛ Nii Ayi Kushi nɔ nɛ. Dani ebashɛ Ayi Kushi nɔ lɛ anako ale’’ to wit, ‘’Kings that sat on the Ga throne from King Ayi Kushi are these.’’

Who preceded Ayi Kushi is not known.’’ If anyone tells you he knows, he is a liar. Bɔkete Lawɛ belonged to the 17th century. That makes his position very clear.

There is no record that Ga Mashi conquered the other Ga towns to form Ayawaso. It was all through negotiations and common cause of relevance – what each stood to gain from the commonwealth. All of Ga submitted voluntarily to the authority of Ga Mashi, and Ga Mantsɛ in turn gave them protection and autonomy.

This is the more reason why we must resist any revisionism that threatens this tidy ancient arrangement.

It must be noted that, in the lead up to the collapse of Ayawaso in 1680, both Anokye and King Tutu were living in Akwamu, then a neighbour of Ga. Is it possible that the federal nature of Ga Jaku influenced the confederation of Asante? Both Ga Jaku and Asanteman were built on 5 principal states.

Mind you, the Ga -Akwamu war was said to have started because Okaikoi circumcised Akwamu prince Odei, who was understudying him. Yes, Ga teaching Akwamu about their chieftaincy system was highly probable.


Akulashiŋ is columns or pillars of support. In governance, it means those who carry the state on their heads – the key organs of state or the arms of government.

1st – Executive – Ga Mantsɛ (President) and his deputy Ga Mankralo (Prime Minister).

2nd – Judicio-military – Akwaashɔŋtsɛ (Chief Justice & Chief of Defence Staff) and his Akwaashɔŋ (panel of judges & commanders).

3rd – Religion – Nai Wulɔmɔ and his associate wulɔmɛi.

4th – Electoral Commission – Jaasetsɛ (Electoral Commissioner) and his Jaase (commissioners).

5th – Civil Service – a. Woleiatsɛ (Chief Fisherman) b. Okwashoiatsɛ (Chief Farmer).

These positions were genetic, that is inherited within families. But there was one non-genetic position.
Shikitele – a corruption of Secretary. This was the Chief of Staff of Ga Mantsɛ.

A non-royal elected by maŋbii or citizens from 2 or 3 very intelligent and respected commoners. Yes, you read right – meritocracy and elections were here before the white man came to our shores.

There was no dedicated Parliament. All these officers plus the King’s own appointed advisers, advised the King. These constitutional changes took two generations 60-70years to mature and I have no doubt that if British colonialism hadn’t occurred a Parliament of commoners would have eventuated.

FYI, Mojawe, the Supreme Court was banned by the colonial government in 1910, but the people ignored the ban and continued to rely on it for another 15 years before the ‘’great Court’’ folded up.

The beauty of Ga akulashiŋ was that, none of the other 4 columns was appointed by Ga Mantsɛ. They were thoroughly independent. In fact, even the Mankralo was not appointed by the Mantsɛ.

What do we have in Ghana today? After 62 years of independence, what akulashiŋ have we built? All we do is fight over who founded this Ghana. Who wants to be a founder of such a failing state?

Despite unrelenting political interference, self-mutilation (by Gamei) and epileptic seizures occasioned by a rapidly failing state, the Ga akulashiŋ structures remain.

After independence, our elected Redeemer completely obliterated the akulashiŋ the British bequeathed us, and the head of state, became the State. We are yet to recover.

This is what has become of Okaikoi and Anokye’s Ghana.

How do we recover? Come back Okaikoi, Come back Anokye. Afremocracy here I come.
Tswa omanye aba.